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Quantum Computing, Technology

In recent years, quantum computers have surpassed classical computers in solving certain computational tasks. [[1](https://academic.oup.com/nsr/article/6/1/22/5050062)] Google announced in 2019 that it had achieved “quantum supremacy” [[2](https://www.washingtonpost.com/science/2019/10/23/google-scientists-say-theyve-achieved-quantum-supremacy/)], proving the immense potential of quantum computing. Scientists continue to explore what implications this amazing technology will have on the world. Michio Kaku’s book “Quantum Supremacy” is a fascinating exploration of the possibilities offered by this new technology. [[3](https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/697040/quantum-supremacy-by-michio-kaku/)].

Introduction to Quantum Supremacy

Quantum supremacy is a milestone in computer science: the ability of quantum computers to solve certain problems more quickly than their classical counterparts, thus proving their superiority. This concept is related to quantum computing which uses the strange properties of particles and atoms to perform calculations much faster than normal computers. Currently, quantum computing is in its infancy and quantum supremacy has not been proven yet. However, numerous research teams are working to make this goal a reality. In this article, we will explore the nature of quantum supremacy, its implications, and the current research being done to facilitate this milestone.

The Nature of Quantum Supremacy

Quantum supremacy is defined as the point where a quantum computer can perform a certain task that is hugely computationally complex and would take classical computers a large amount of time to perform the same task. This task is determined by a mathematical operation named ‘random circuit sampling’, comprising a set of individual gates that is applied to the quantum circuits. The speed of performing this task on a quantum computer is exponentially faster than a classical computer, since the calculation time increases exponentially with the number of gates. This exponential speedup of quantum computers over classical computers is what makes quantum supremacy possible.

Quantum vs Classical Computing

The differences between quantum and classical computing lie in the physics behind them both. Classical computers use transistors to store and manipulate information, where 0s and 1s represent the two possible states of bits. Conversely, quantum computers utilize the strange behavior of particles on the quantum level, in which particles can be in more than one state simultaneously (superposition). This allows them to store and process many values at the same time. Furthermore, amplitudes and phase shifts of qubits act as correlations in order to produce a result. This exponentially increases the speed of quantum computing as compared to classical computing.

The Significance of Quantum Supremacy

Quantum supremacy has been considered a long-term goal within the field of quantum computing, and achieving this milestone carries profound implications for the field. Quantum computers could revolutionize the way we perform computational tasks, from weather forecasting to solving complex mathematical equations.

Areas of Research

In particular, quantum supremacy could pave the way to greater advances in the areas of data science, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning. By harnessing the power of quantum computing, scientists could more easily search large databases and crunch large amounts of data. This could help to improve the accuracy and speed of AI, making it more flexible and efficient. In addition, quantum computing could lead to significant advances in the field of cryptography, the backbone of our online security. Quantum encryption algorithms could be used to make data even more secure, making it harder to crack.

New Algorithm

Researchers have recently proposed a new algorithm for random circuit sampling that can outperform the classical computers used in the Google Sycamore quantum computer experiment [1](https://www.quantamagazine.org/new-algorithm-closes-quantum-supremacy-window-20230109/). This algorithm could potentially bring quantum supremacy closer to reality by reducing the number of errors that can occur in quantum computers.

The Development of Quantum Supremacy Technology

In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in advancing quantum computing technology. With the help of public and private research organizations, the building blocks of quantum supremacy are being put in place.

Progress Made By Google

In 2019, Google claimed to have achieved quantum supremacy by demonstrating the Sycamore quantum computer performing a specific task that would have taken a classical computer 10,000 years to complete [2](https://www.science.org/content/article/ordinary-computers-can-beat-google-s-quantum-computer-after-all). However, this claim was later challenged when researchers from the University of Michigan used conventional supercomputers to solve the same problem two times faster than Google’s quantum computer [3](https://techcrunch.com/2022/08/05/googles-quantum-supremacy-usurped-by-researchers-using-ordinary-supercomputer/).

Impressive Hardware

In terms of hardware, many innovative technologies have been developed for building quantum computers. Superconducting circuits are now being used to construct qubits, with the help of which classical logic gates are being simulated by a series of microwave pulses. Furthermore, photonic systems are being used to transfer quantum information over long distances, allowing quantum computers to communicate with one another.

More Studies Needed

Although significant progress has been made towards the realization of quantum supremacy, much research still needs to be done. More robust algorithms and error-correcting techniques must be developed, and further progress needs to be made on hardware. Furthermore, researchers are looking into ways to reduce noise and temperature in quantum computers to reduce the amount of errors.

Conclusion

In conclusion, quantum supremacy is a milestone within quantum computing that could revolutionize the way we do computational tasks. Numerous researchers from both the public and private sector have worked hard towards this goal, and their efforts have yielded promising results. However, much more work is still needed before quantum supremacy can be achieved. Nevertheless, as our understanding of the quantum nanoscale continues to grow, so too will our ability to make the most of the strange and powerful phenomena associated with it.

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